• Articulation Developmental Norms


    The speech-language pathologist considers a speech sound error to be a problem when the error persists beyond the chronological age when 90% of the students sampled have typically acquired that sound. Please note that per New Jersey Special Education code Title 6A, Chapter 14, the student must exhibit one or more sound production errors beyond the age at which 90% of the population has achieved accuracy according to developmental norms. A speech sound disorder must also adversely affect the student’s educational performance. According to the Keyport School District criteria, students in the following grade levels should be able to produce the following sounds:


    (age 5-6): /m, n, h, w, y, p, b, t, d, k, g/


    1st grade

    (age 6-7): /m, n, ng, h, w, y, p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v/


    *If the student lateralizes the sibilants /s, z, sh, ch/, they may qualify for speech therapy because lateralizing is not considered developmental.

    *Errors with /th, sh, ch, s, z, r, l, zh/ may persist beyond 1st grade.

    2nd grade

    (age 7-8): /m, n, ng, h, w, y, p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, th, sh, ch, s, z, r, l, zh (as in measure)/


    By 3rd grade, students should have fully developed articulation.

    Source: Smit, Et. Al. “The Iowa Articulation Norms Project and its Nebraska Replication”, Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, Volume 55, 779-798, November, 1990.